One Hundred Years of US Intervention
by Zoltan Grossman

                                         

SOUTH DAKOTA

1890 (-?)

Troops

300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.

ARGENTINA

1890

Troops

Buenos Aires interests protected.

CHILE

1891

Troops

Marines clash with nationalist rebels.

HAITI

1891

Troops

Black revolt on Navassa defeated.

IDAHO

1892

Troops

Army suppresses silver miners' strike.

HAWAII

1893 (-?)

Naval, troops

Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.

CHICAGO

1894

Troops

Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.

NICARAGUA

1894

Troops

Month-long occupation of Bluefields.

CHINA

1894-95

Naval, troops

Marines land in Sino-Japanese War

KOREA

1894-96

Troops

Marines kept in Seoul during war.

PANAMA

1895

Troops, naval

Marines land in Colombian province.

NICARAGUA

1896

Troops

Marines land in port of Corinto.

CHINA

1898-1900

Troops

Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.

PHILIPPINES

1898-1910 (-?)

Naval, troops

Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos

CUBA

1898-1902 (-?)

Naval, troops

Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base.

PUERTO RICO

1898 (-?)

Naval, troops

Seized from Spain, occupation continues.

GUAM

1898 (-?)

Naval, troops

Seized from Spain, still use as base.

MINNESOTA

1898 (-?)

Troops

Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.

NICARAGUA

1898

Troops

Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.

SAMOA

1899 (-?)

Troops

Battle over succession to throne.

NICARAGUA

1899

Troops

Marines land at port of Bluefields.

IDAHO

1899-1901

Troops

Army occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.

OKLAHOMA

1901

Troops

Army battles Creek Indian revolt.

PANAMA

1901-14

Naval, troops

Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone 1914.

HONDURAS

1903

Troops

Marines intervene in revolution.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

1903-04

Troops

U.S. interests protected in Revolution.

KOREA

1904-05

Troops

Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.

CUBA

1906-09

Troops

Marines land in democratic election.

NICARAGUA

1907

Troops

"Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up.

HONDURAS

1907

Troops

Marines land during war with Nicaragua

PANAMA

1908

Troops

Marines intervene in election contest.

NICARAGUA

1910

Troops

Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.

HONDURAS

1911

Troops

U.S. interests protected in civil war.

CHINA

1911-41

Naval, troops

Continuous occupation with flare-ups.

CUBA

1912

Troops

U.S. interests protected in civil war.

PANAMA

1912

Troops

Marines land during heated election.

HONDURAS

1912

Troops

Marines protect U.S. economic interests.

NICARAGUA

1912-33

Troops, bombing

10-year occupation, fought guerillas

MEXICO

1913

Naval

Americans evacuated during revolution.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

1914

Naval

Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.

COLORADO

1914

Troops

Breaking of miners' strike by Army.

MEXICO

1914-18

Naval, troops

Series of interventions against nationalists.

HAITI

1914-34

Troops, bombing

19-year occupation after revolts.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

1916-24

Troops

8-year Marine occupation.

CUBA

1917-33

Troops

Military occupation, economic protectorate.

WORLD WAR I

1917-18

naval, troops

Ships sunk, fought Germany for 1 1/2 years.

RUSSIA

1918-22

Naval, troops

Five landings to fight Bolsheviks

PANAMA

1918-20

Troops

"Police duty" during unrest after elections.

HONDURAS

1919

Troops

Marines land during election campaign.

YUGOSLAVIA

1919

Troops/Marines

intervene for Italy against Serbs in Dalmatia.

GUATEMALA

1920

Troops

2-week intervention against unionists.

WEST VIRGINIA

1920-21

Troops, bombing

Army intervenes against mineworkers.

TURKEY

1922

Troops

Fought nationalists in Smyrna.

CHINA

1922-27

Naval, troops

Deployment during nationalist revolt.

HONDURAS

1924-25

Troops

Landed twice during election strife.

PANAMA

1925

Troops

Marines suppress general strike.

CHINA

1927-34

Troops

Marines stationed throughout the country.

EL SALVADOR

1932

Naval

Warships send during Marti revolt.

WASHINGTON DC

1932

Troops

Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.

WORLD WAR II

1941-45

Naval, troops, bombing, nuclear

Hawaii bombed, fought Japan, Italy and Germany for 3 years; first nuclear war.

DETROIT

1943

Troops

Army put down Black rebellion.

IRAN

1946

Nuclear threat

Soviet troops told to leave north.

YUGOSLAVIA

1946

Nuclear threat, naval

Response to shoot-down of US plane.

URUGUAY

1947

Nuclear threat

Bombers deployed as show of strength.

GREECE

1947-49

Command operation

U.S. directs extreme-right in civil war.

GERMANY

1948

Nuclear Threat

Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.

CHINA

1948-49

Troops/Marines

evacuate Americans before Communist victory.

PHILIPPINES

1948-54

Command operation

CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.

PUERTO RICO

1950

Command operation

Independence rebellion crushed in Ponce.

KOREA

1951-53 (-?)

Troops, naval, bombing , nuclear threats

U.S./So. Korea fights China/No. Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, and against China in 1953. Still have bases.

IRAN

1953

Command Operation

CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.

VIETNAM

1954

Nuclear threat

French offered bombs to use against seige.

GUATEMALA

1954

Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat

CIA directs exile invasion after new gov't nationalized U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.

EGYPT

1956

Nuclear threat, troops

Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; Marines evacuate foreigners.

LEBANON

l958

Troops, naval

Marine occupation against rebels.

IRAQ

1958

Nuclear threat

Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.

CHINA

l958

Nuclear threat

China told not to move on Taiwan isles.

PANAMA

1958

Troops

Flag protests erupt into confrontation.

VIETNAM

l960-75

Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats

Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; one million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in l968 and l969.

LAOS

1962

Command operation

Military build-up during guerrilla war.

CUBA

l961

Command operation

CIA-directed exile invasion fails.

GERMANY

l961

Nuclear threat

Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.

CUBA

l962

Nuclear threat, naval

Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet Union.

PANAMA

l964

Troops

Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.

INDONESIA

l965

Command operation

Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

1965-66

Troops, bombing

Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA

l966-67

Command operation

Green Berets intervene against rebels.

DETROIT

l967

Troops

Army battles Blacks, 43 killed.

UNITED STATES

l968

Troops

After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.

CAMBODIA

l969-75

Bombing, troops, naval

Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.

OMAN

l970

Command operation

U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.

LAOS

l971-73

Command operation, bombing

U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; "carpet-bombs" countryside.

SOUTH DAKOTA

l973

Command operation

Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.

MIDEAST

1973

Nuclear threat

World-wide alert during Mideast War.

CHILE

1973

Command operation

CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.

CAMBODIA

l975

Troops, bombing

Gas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash.

ANGOLA

l976-92

Command operation

CIA assists South African-backed rebels.

IRAN

l980

Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing

Raid to rescue Embassy hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.

LIBYA

l981

Naval jets

Two Libyan jets shot down in manoeuvres.

EL SALVADOR

l981-92

Command operation, troops

Advisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.

NICARAGUA

l981-90

Command operation, naval

CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbour mines against revolution.

LEBANON

l982-84

Naval, bombing, troops

Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim positions.

GRENADA

l983-84

Troops, bombing

Invasion four years after revolution.

HONDURAS

l983-89

Troops

Manoeuvres help build bases near borders.

IRAN

l984

Jets

Two Iranian jets shot down over Persian Gulf.

LIBYA

l986

Bombing, naval

Air strikes to topple nationalist gov't.

BOLIVIA

1986

Troops

Army assists raids on cocaine region.

IRAN

l987-88

Naval, bombing

US intervenes on side of Iraq in war.

LIBYA

1989

Naval jets

Two Libyan jets shot down.

VIRGIN ISLANDS

1989

Troops

St. Croix Black unrest after storm.

PHILIPPINES

1989

Jets

Air cover provided for government against coup.

PANAMA

1989 (-?)

Troops, bombing

Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed.

LIBERIA

1990

Troops

Foreigners evacuated during civil war.

SAUDI ARABIA

1990-91

Troops, jets

Iraq countered after invading Kuwait. 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.

IRAQ

1990-?

Bombing, troops, naval

Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; no-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south, large-scale destruction of Iraqi military.

KUWAIT

1991

Naval, bombing, troops

Kuwait royal family returned to throne.

LOS ANGELES

1992

Troops

Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising.

SOMALIA

1992-94

Troops, naval, bombing

U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.

YUGOSLAVIA

1992-94

Naval

NATO blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.

BOSNIA

1993-?

Jets, bombing

No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.

HAITI

1994-?

Troops, naval

Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.

ZAIRE (CONGO)

1996-97

Troops

Marines at Rwandan Hutu refugee camps, in area where Congo revolution begins.

LIBERIA

1997

Troops

Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

ALBANIA

1997

Troops

Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

SUDAN

1998

Missiles

Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be "terrorist" nerve gas plant.

AFGHANISTAN

1998

Missiles

Attack on former CIA training camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies.

IRAQ

1998-?

Bombing, Missiles

Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors allege Iraqi obstructions.

YUGOSLAVIA

1999

Bombing, Missiles

Heavy NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo.